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 我怎么知道我知道?  
 作者:桑大师    教导来源:本站原创    点击数:    更新时间:2011-9-16  【
 

How do I Know that I Know?

By Sankirtana dasa

我怎么知道我知道?

 

Abstract: Does a reality beyond our present experience, as declared in the Yoga culture, truly exist? Is it really true that I am a spirit soul mistakenly fancying myself to be a creature of the phenomenal world?  Is the chanting of the Hare Krishna mantra indeed a pure transcendental activity? Will it really awaken me to my original awareness? How can I be confident that what is told in the Bhagavad-gétä is objectively accurate and not a matter of someone’s belief? How does one know anything for certain? A thoughtful person will ask, and should ask, such questions.[1]

 

摘要:如像瑜伽文化所描述的超出我们现有经验的现实真的存在吗?我真的是一个灵性的灵魂,却误以为自己是能知觉的世界的产物吗?念诵哈瑞奎师那曼陀罗确实是一项纯粹的超然活动么?它真的能够唤醒我原初的意识吗?我如何能确信《博伽梵歌》中说的都是客观准确的,而不是某人的信念?一个人该怎样才能确信任何事情?一位有思想的人会提出这些问题,也应该提出这些问题。

 

We are informed that Vedic sound (çabda) is self-evident and objective; there is no superior authority to prove it; there is nothing beyond it; literally, it is evidence that proves itself.[2] But we can also note that when we are covered by false ego, we are deaf and blind to our own hearts and to the transcendental sound that comes from Krishna. Owing to the blinded condition, one is unable to experience the existence of Krishna. Krishna nonetheless helps a willing person via an expert teacher. Such a teacher guides the person towards the goal of Yoga primarily in perfecting the hearing process. Recovered awareness serves then as proof for the validity of the process and the correctness of the Vedic view. Some detailed elements that lend support to the accuracy of this process follow hereunder.

 

我们被告知韦达音振如何是不证自明的,是客观存在的;没有更高的权威去证明它;也没有别的什么比它更高;事实上,它本身就是证明自己的证据。2但我们也知道,当我们被假我蒙蔽时,我们既无法看到自己的内心,也听不到内心的声音和来自奎师那的超然音振。正是因为这种又聋又瞎的状态,我们无法体验到奎师那的存在。尽管如此,对于有心人,奎师那还是会通过一位熟练的老师来帮助他。这位老师主要通过改善聆听这一程序来指导他迈向瑜伽的目标。恢复的意识可作为这个程序行之有效和韦达观点的正确性的证据。下文是支持这一程序的准确性的一些详细的原理。

 

Yoga, defined in Bhagavad-gétä 5.11 as käyena manasä buddhyä kevalair indriyair api, is the state in which the functions of the body, mind, intellect, and even the senses are kevala, completely pure. In the kevala state, consciousness passes over the barrier of deceptive sense impressions to link with the cause of all causes, Krishna. Taking shelter of Krishna is not a hypothetical venture that the mind may reject later on. Indeed, the only real contentment for anyone is the experience of the transcendental excellence of the Lord's holy name, form, quality, pastimes, and relationships. When one knows Krishna in full, ignorance and the doubts it spawns are abolished. Because all this transpires from hearing sound infused with Krishna's spiritual potency, Krishna is known as çrutekñita: He who is seen through the ears.[3] If we do not see Krishna, it is because we don't hear Him. And we do not hear him when our desires are impure: “Krishna, or God, is situated in everyone's heart. As you become purified, He speaks. He speaks always, but in our impure condition, we cannot hear.”[4]

 

在《博伽梵歌》5.11中,瑜伽被定义为käyena manasä buddhyä kevalair indriyair api,身体、心意、智甚至感官的功能是kevala,完全粹的境界kevala境界中,意识超越欺感官印象的阻隔,与万源之源奎。托庇于奎那并不是一心意随后又会拒的假想的冒实际上,人只有从主超然完美的圣名、形体、品、逍遥光以及人关系中才能体到真正的足。当人底理解了奎那的候,愚昧和它生的疑惑就被摧。因从聆听开始的一切都灌注着奎那的灵性能量,所以奎那以çrutekñita名:通看到的他。3如果我看到奎那,那是因没有聆听他。而当我的欲望并不粹的候,我不会聆听他:那,或神,在众生心中。当你粹的候,他便开始说话。他一直在说话,但在不粹的状下,我无法听到他的声音。4

 

Certainly, directly hearing Krishna is not an easy thing, although it appears so when perusing writings such as the popular Conversations with God series. But we should know that such books or teachings arise from the mental realm and hardly ever tell concrete truth – what to speak of informing about transcendental reality. Their statements are always subject to errors (errare humanum est – to err is human), which can be spotted by sharp discernment. Moreover, such words do not have the potency to purify a reader captivated by external sense impressions. Through the mind and senses one is ordinarily engrossed in the ever-changing material world. This misdirection of consciousness powers the turning of the saàsära-cakra – the wheel of birth and death. Misinformed by imperfect sense data and bewildered by uncertainty since time immemorial, the mind misconstrues reality. When, in spite of this, we believe that we will gain flawless experiences by reading such defective books, we are deceiving ourselves. Because Conversations with God and other channeled works arise from minds operating within the relative time-space realm, they only further add to the perplexity of misdirected minds. Clearly, the word “God” in relation to channeling – as in many other cases – is a misnomer and should be corrected.[5]

 

当然,直接聆听奎师那并不是一件容易的事,尽管在阅读畅销书《与神对话》系列作品时,这看起来好像很容易。但是我们应该认识到,这些著作或教导都产生于心理领域,而并没有讲述实在的真理——更不用说提及超然的现实。他们的论述难免存在错误(犯错误人皆难免)。敏锐的识别便能发现这些错误。不仅如此,这些言辞也无法净化那些被外在感官印象俘获的读者。人通常通过心意和感官而沉醉于这个变幻万千的物质世界。这意识的被误导给saàsära-cakra——生死之轮的转动提供了动力。从不可追忆的时候起,心意便被不完美的感官信息所误导,被无常世事所迷惑,从而错误地理解了现实存在。雪上加霜的是,当我们坚信通过阅读这类误人子弟的书籍能重获完美无瑕的体验时我们是在欺骗自己。因为《与神对话》和其他通灵作品都源自在时间-空间这个维度中活动的心意,所以他们只会让迷途的心意更加困惑纠结。显然,与通灵——如在其他很多情形中——有关的“神”是个误称,并且应该被纠正。5

 

But how do I know that what Vedic sound reveals is objective reality? According to modern understanding, only when information is open to confirmation by the public can something be called objective. Does Vedic sound, which is often accessible to the perception of only a few, qualify as objective truth? Furthermore, can materially formed sounds ever convey nonmaterial awareness? The answer is yes: Vedic sound vibrations are untainted by false ego since they descend from the transcendental realm.  

 

但我怎么知道韦达音振所揭示的就是客观的现实?根据现代人的理解,只有当信息得到大众的证实某物才能被称为是客观的。那么常常仅为少数人所知的韦达音振是否有资格称得上客观真理? 进一步来说,物质组成的声音是否能够传递非物质的意识?答案是肯定的:韦达音振不被假我污染,因为它们从超然的领域降临。

 

We all know that sound is a most versatile medium, but we commonly fail to grasp that there is an occult power behind words. For instance, if I speak with a dear friend over the telephone, I experience much more than a tinny voice in the earpiece. I experience his warmth, his humor, and his concern for my wellbeing. In short, I experience his personality. But because the potency of his words is limited, his smiling face, his firm handshake, and so many other features are not made explicit through the telephone. I do not experience his total personality. But because Vedic sound (çabda) is absolutely pure it has the power to uplift awareness, hence objective reality is gradually and directly perceived in its self-evident glory; it is truth beyond space and time.

 

都知道声音是多功能的媒介,但通常我都没有领会到言后面有着神秘的力量。比如,假我通过电话与一位密的朋友聊天,我所体到的比听筒里的小声音多得多。我能感受到他的温情,他的幽默,和他我的福利的关心。而言之,我感受到他的人格。但是为话语的力量是有限的,所以他微笑的面容,有力的握手,和那么多其他特征没有通过电话而清晰地被感受到。我没有感受到他完整的人格。但是因为韦达音振(çabda)是绝对纯粹的,因此它能提升意,因此,客的现实在其不言而喻的荣耀中被逐而直接地感知到;它是超越空时间的真理

 

Spiritual sound, also called apräkåta (not manufactured, or not prakåti, not within the range of material nature) is tasted as nectar at the ultimate stage of awareness. Apräkåta knowledge is the divine perception of the Lord's transcendental pastimes, beyond the mechanical functions of material nature. Apräkåta knowledge reveals the person’s original position as an eternal loving associate of Krishna in the spiritual world. This is direct perception of the highest order (divya-pratyakña), direct perception through spiritual senses. It floods the person's consciousness with unending bliss. Such divya-pratyakña is knowledge of the Lord in full through yoga, the linking of the spiritually transformed body, mind, intelligence, and senses to Krishna.

 

当意识在最高境界灵性的声音,又被称作apräkåta(不是制造出来的,或不是prakåti,,即不在物自然范畴之内 美如甘露。Apräkåta主超然逍遥光的神圣感知,它超然于物自然的机械运作。Apräkåta揭示了人的原本地位,即灵性世界中奎那的永恒的挚爱的同游。最高阶段divya-pratyakña)的直接感知是通灵性感官得到的直接感知。它将人的意识淹没在无尽的喜之中。这样的divya-pratyakña瑜伽得的全面底的认识。而瑜伽就是灵性化的身体、心意、智力和感官与奎的连接。

 

Another term that describes the effect of Vedic sound is çästramülaka: sound forever rooted in pure awareness. Even though conveyed by a tangible medium (a voice, or printed matter), çästramülaka words remain pure. Neglecting ordinary sensory perception and mundane reasoning, adept Yogés succeed in discerning their real, spiritual ego, and experience objective reality. Likewise, our doubting ceases in proportion to our progressive purification.

 

另一个描述韦达音振的效果的词是çästramülaka:永远植根于纯粹意识的声音。即便通过有形的媒介(语音或印刷品)传达,çästramülaka的言语仍然是纯粹的。精通此道的瑜伽师无视普通的感知和世俗的推理,成功地洞察到他们真正的、灵性的自我,体验到客观的现实。同样,我们的怀疑也会随着自己的不断净化而停止。

 

In contrast to the Vedic version, philosophical schools as for example rationalism emphasize anumäna, or reason, to be the ultimate self-evident truth. Central to rationalism is the notion that the mind can know the underlying meaning of everything by deep thought. It may seem that rationalism and the Vedic method of discernment described above are comparable. But the former comes to a very different result. It rationalizes existence, or in other words, gives it a mental basis. Its discussions are mainly about ideas of reality, soul and the rest. Thus rationalists investigate the world as they think it should be, and unlike empiricists, who investigate the world with sensory means, they rely on their mental strength.    

 

达哲学相比,其他哲学流派,比如唯理主义强调anumäna,或推理是极的不自明的真理。唯理主义的核心思想是心意可以通深入的思考认识万事万物背后的含。唯理主义与上文所达辨识的方式看似可以相比。但前者得出一个非常不同的结果。唯理主义使存在合理化,或者话说,唯理主义为存在提供了一个心理基。它探的主要是关于现实、灵魂和其他。因此唯理主义者按照他们认为的方式去研究世界,不像经验主义者用感知的方法研究世界,他依靠他们的心理力量

 

Vedic philosophy neither accepts sensory perception (pratyakña) nor reason as ultimate proof. Real knowledge is transcendental. It is divya-pratyakña, divine perception that depends upon nothing material, not even the logical functions of the mind. Sense perception and reasoning devoid of Vedic sound are disqualified as self-evident authority. For instance, anumäna can help us form a reasonable basis for a belief in worlds other than our own, as quantum physics does. But reason alone cannot bring us to the realization, with complete certainty, of other worlds in a different material dimension, what to speak of unquestionable realization of the transcendental worlds of the spiritual dimension. The case of quantum physics is telling: many of us know from popular science magazines and pocketbooks that scientists confirm the existence of other worlds that influence our own. But it is unlikely that scientists perceive these worlds, and thus these worlds remain only an idea for them. If, in addition to their anumäna efforts, they used çabda, they would succeed in their efforts to know them.

 

韦达哲学既不接受感官认知(pratyakña)也不接受推理为最高的证据。真正的知识是超然的。真正的知识是divya-pratyakñ,不依赖任何物质的事物,甚至心意的逻辑推理的神性的认知。缺乏韦达音振的感官认知和推理都不能成为不证自明的权威。比如,anumäna推理能帮助我们形成对不同的世界的信心的一个合理的基础,而不是自己的心意虚构,正像量子物理学家们所做的那样。但推理本身并不能让我们彻底而确定地认识一个不同的物质维度中的其它世界,更不用说去毫无疑问地认识灵性维度中的超然世界。量子物理学家的例子告诉我们:我们很多人通过科普杂志和小册子得知,科学家们确定存在着其它世界,而且它们影响着我们的世界。但科学家们不太可能感知到这些世界,因此这些世界对他们来说还只是一个概念。如果,在推理的基础之上,他们使用çabda,他们认识这些世界的努力就会成功。

 

Çabda (transcendental sound), in contrast, reveals truths that defective minds are unable to discern by referring to themselves. One such truth is that the mind is a subtle material covering of consciousness, something like the smoke that clouds a flame, which is not burning cleanly. The flame is comparable to the soul, for the flame spreads its light like the soul spreads consciousness. A flame burning uncleanly is like a soul in mäyä, the state of forgetfulness of Krishna, or God. From the soul in mäyä, the mind arises, like smoke rising from a flame. Consequently, by means of the mind one is unable to objectively perceive the pure self.

 

相比之下çabda(超然音振)揭示有缺陷的心意自身无法明辨的真相。这样的一个真相就是心意是意识的精微的物覆盖,就像罩着燃的火焰的烟。火焰可被比作灵魂,正如火焰散播光,灵魂散播意识。燃得不底的火焰就像玛亚之中忘了奎那,或神的灵魂。心意产生于玛亚之中的灵魂,就像烟火焰之中升起。果,人不能借助于心意来客感知纯粹的自我

 

The special feature of the Vedic viewpoint is the understanding of the deceived condition of our minds (mäyä) as described in the example of smoke that clouds a flame. Because of the resultant distorted experience we need to hear from an undistorted source. Suppose we want to understand the influence of alcohol. We could try induction and taste it. However, a person under the influence of intoxication caused by the ingestion of alcohol loses his ability to correctly assess anything, including his own condition. The better way to understand alcohol is to learn about it from authentic sources that instruct us all about its positive and negative uses. Thus understanding the influence of alcohol, one sees clearly that a drunkard's condition is abominable. One will therefore not trust such a person and most likely abstain from drinking alcohol.

 

点的独特之是把我们的心意被蒙蔽的状况理解为被烟雾笼罩火焰。正因为这连带而至的扭曲体,我需要从一个未被扭曲的源头那里聆听。假想要明白酒的影响。我们可以尝试感应并品尝。然而,因为摄入酒而醉酒的人失去了正确地估任何事情,包括他自己的状况的能力。因此,要想了解酒的更佳方法是从关于酒的全部正面和负面用法的可信源头那里学习。如此了解了酒的作用之后,人就能清楚地醉鬼的状况令人厌恶。因此人也就不会信任这样的人,并且很可能戒酒

 

The mind is called caïcala in Sanskrit, meaning unsteady. Sometimes it is awake. Sometimes it dreams. Sometimes it is in deep dreamless sleep. When the light of self-knowledge is obscured, wakefulness, dreaming, and deep sleep delude consciousness. We therefore make such false statements as “I think,” “last night I dreamt,” “I was unconscious,” and so on. But all the while the flame of the self, the soul, burns eternally, unaffected by this clouding of its light.

 

心意在梵文中被称作caïcala,意为不稳定。有时候它是清醒的。有时候它在做梦。有时候它处在无梦的深度睡眠中。当关于自我的知识之光被遮蔽时,清醒、做梦和深度睡眠就会哄骗意识。因此我们做出错误的论断,比如“我认为”,“昨夜我梦到”,“我没有意识”等等。但是与此同时,自我,灵魂的火焰在永恒不熄地燃烧着,不受此遮蔽的影响。

 

We need superior insight to come to an objective perception. As illustrated in the example of a person under the influence of alcohol, when the living entity is not in his original state of consciousness, his perception is exclusively restricted to subjective perceptions. Yet many scientists, following their assumption that the world can be known through the senses or at least by the mind, deceitfully uphold their assertion of flawless information. Currently, they lead mankind’s thinking and actions in most spheres of life, receiving admirations for enabling people to enjoy longevity.   

 

需要出众的洞察力来获得客观的感知。正像受酒影响的人的例子,当生物在他原本的意识态中时,他的感知仅仅受制于其主认知尽管如此,多科学家设想这个世界感官,或至少通心意来认识欺骗支持关于完美的信息的断言。当下,他们大多数生活域里领导人类的思和活,因其能助人延年益寿而受到赞赏。

 

Many scientists share a common denominator: it is a strong work ethic. Going into the lab or out in the field to come back with a tangible gain, something the rest of the world can get their hands on. From such scientific work, which comes down to us as technology and medical aids, we enhance material life. But material life is in the hands of death, the ultimate suffering. At the time of death, our hands lose their grip on technology and medicine. Then how are these sciences a tangible gain? Whatever the results of the scientific method may be, they do not tackle life's substantial questions: why was I born, why must I die, and what is the purpose of this temporary human life? The philosophy of science is essentially a denial of this rudimentary certainty. Science appeals to reason and employs doubting as a means to obtain certainty, yet it simultaneously promotes ambiguity regarding a phenomenon that is certain, namely the existence of irrevocable death.

 

许多科学家都有一个共同的特点,那就是有着强烈的职业道德。无论是窝在实验室里还是进行田野调查,他们总能得到有形的收获,别人能从中受益的收获。这种科学工作最后以科技和医学的形式呈现在我们面前,巩固着我们的物质生活。但是物质生活总免不了死亡,最终的痛苦。无论我们怎样紧握科技和医学,在死亡时我们都得放手。那么这些科学怎么算是有形的收获?无论科学方法的结果是什么,它们都不牵涉生命的实质性问题:我为什么出生,我为什么必须死亡,这短暂的人生的意义是什么?科学从本质上来说就是在否定这最基本的确定事实。科学诉诸于推理,把质疑作为方法来获得确定事实,虽然如此,它同时却促使关于一个必然现象变得模糊。那现象就是不可改变的死亡。

 

When our ethic is build upon epistemological, logical, and metaphysical uncertainty, we can expect trouble in society. In recent times, precisely because of adoption the doubting method as the means to acquire knowledge, doubts swamp the field of ethic, morality and conduct. Around the world, people debate about where the limits of individual freedom should be drawn; how far genetic engineering should be allowed; the meaning of equality and of human rights – and hundreds similar questions. Nobody seems to be able to tell for certain. When clear, satisfactory answers are not forthcoming, doubts give way to political strife, violence, revolution, and war. Such conflicts are endless, and at last breed indifference to moral values and disregard for essential social norms.

 

当我们的伦理道德是以认识论、逻辑和超自然的不确定性为基础的时候,我们就可以预期社会中的动乱了。最近,恰恰因为使用质疑作为获取知识的方法,疑惑使伦理、道德和行为的领地陷入了困境。全世界各地的人们都在辩论个人自由的极限在何处;基因工程应该允许进行到什么程度;平等与人权的含义——和成百上千类似的问题。似乎没人能给出确定的答案。当明确而令人满意的答案没有来临时,这些疑惑就给政治斗争、暴力、革命和战争让路了。这些冲突是无止境的,并最终引发对道德价值的无动于衷与对基本的社会规范的漠视。

 



[1] This essay deals with epistemological questions. Epistemology focuses on analyzing the nature of knowledge and how it relates to connected notions such as truth, belief, and justification. It also deals with the means of production of knowledge, as well as skepticism about different knowledge The cue for the arguments derive from Suhotra Swami, Subtance and Shadow, 1996, Govinda Press

这篇论文涉及到认识论的问题。认识论集中研究分析知识的性质和它如何与像事实,信念和理由这样相关的观念关联。它还涉及到产生知识的方法和对不同的知识的质疑。

[2] svataù-pramäëa veda – pramäëa-çiromaëi …CC Adi 7.132

svataù-pramäëa veda – pramäëa-çiromaëi …《永恒的采坦亚经》上篇7.132

[3] Çrémad-Bhägavatam 3.9.11

《圣典博伽瓦谭》3.9.11

[4] Çréla Prabhupäda, Çrémad-Bhägavatam, lecture in Delhi, November 16, 1973.

19731116日施瑞拉帕布帕达在德里的《圣典博伽瓦谭》讲课

[5] Channeling is the act or practice of serving as a medium through which a spirit guide purportedly communicates with living persons. See http://godchannel.com/index.html

通灵是作为一个灵魂向导借以与活人沟通的媒介的行为或者修习。见http://godchannel.com/index.html

 

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