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 [图文]假我的含义  
 作者:桑老师    教导来源:本站原创    点击数:    更新时间:2012-9-24  【
 

Appendix Three: The meaning of false ego

附录三:假我的含义

 

From the viewpoint of Absolute Reality, every being is permanently part of that reality (mamaivāṁśo jīva-bhūtasanātana). To experience a temporary world he adopts a delusional identity as being part of a family, nation, species etc. Scriptures (śāstra) call this mistaken identification ‘false’ ego. Just as someone watching a movie temporarily forgets that he is in a movie theater located in a particular building of a particular city, false ego makes the living entity believe that he is part of this relative world instead of the absolute reality.

从绝对现实的观点来看,每个生物永远都是那现实的一部分(mamaivāṁśo jīva-bhūta sanātana)。为了体验短暂的世界,他采取了一个妄想的身份,即一个家族,国家,物种等等的一部分。经典(śāstra)把此错误的认同称为“假”我。正如在看电影的某人暂时忘记了他在位于一个特别的城市里的一幢建筑里的一个电影院里,假我使生物相信他是此相对世界的一部分而非绝对现实的一部分。

 

The degree of ‘false’ ego ranges from misidentification with the external body to subtler identifications with mental conditions. The scriptures detail the different stages of misidentifications arising from ‘false’ ego culminating in the full recovery of the real ego.

1)     The most primitive stage: “I” am this body. Food is life (anna-maya).

2)     “I” am composed of mind and body (prāṇa-maya).

3)     “I” am mind and will outlive the body (mano-maya). Mind is deemed to be the soul.

“假”我的程度从与外在的躯体的错误认同到更微妙的与心智状况的认同。经典详述了由“假”我引起的错误认同的不同阶段以真实自我的完全恢复告终。

1)  最原始的阶段:“我”是此躯体。食物就是生命(anna-maya)。

2)  “我”是由心意和躯体组成的(prāṇa-maya)

3)  “我”是心意并且会比躯体活得长(mano-maya)。心意被认为是灵魂。

 

The above three cognitive developments are the experiences of plants, animals, and the average humans. They take place within the “cloud” of the temporary world.[1]

上述三种认知发展是植物,动物和普通人的经历。它们在这短暂的世界之“云”内部发生。

 

In this cloud, the living beings, although perpetually beyond the realm of time and space, experience the temporary world as all there is. Some of them engage in lawful (religious) deeds and strive for balance within duality and hence achieve some peace of mind and good health, but they are unaware of the real ego. The mental settings are commonly misinterpreted as ‘soul’: “I will live after the body is dead.” Who does such a person believe the “I” is? He thinks that the “I” is Chinese, male or female, child of So and So, Christian, Muslim, Buddhist etc. Awareness of the real self (ātmā) is veiled.

在此云中,生物虽永恒地超越时间和空间的领域却体验到这短暂的世界就是一切。他们中的一些从事合法的(符合宗教的)活动并在二元性中争取平衡,因此得到了一些内心的平静和健康,但他们没有意识到真实的自我。心理状况通常被误解为“灵魂”:“在这躯体死后我会活着。”这样的人认为那“我”是谁呢?他认为那“我”是中国人,男人或女人,某某的孩子,基督教徒,穆斯林教徒,佛教徒等等。对真我(ātmā)的认知被蒙蔽了。

 

4)     “I” am spirit soul, the observer (sākṣī or ksetra-jna; vijnāna-maya). The person has heard about his true ātmā identity and, due to past spiritual activities, again desires to progress spiritually. This then is the meaning of faith (śraddhā): a hypothetical acceptance and the willingness to pursue the objective through the performance of spiritual practice (sādhana).

4)“我”是灵魂,观察者(sākṣī or ksetra-jna; vijnāna-maya)。那人听说了关于他的真实ātmā身份,然后由于过往的灵性活动,再次想在灵性上进步。这就是信心(śraddhā)的含义:假设的接受和愿意通过从事灵性的修习(sādhana)来追求那目标。

 

5)     Stage of full recovery: “I” am ātmā (ānanda-maya). Here the realization of “I” am the observer (or observed) is fully awakened (Jīvan-mukta). One can now either be completely uninterested in what takes place in his body and mind by the practice of Jnāna-yoga and thereby enter into the formless Brahman feature of the Absolute Truth, or receive spiritual potencies (cit) by the practice of Bhakti-yoga, which converts one’s body and mind into spiritual energy. Thus one can participate in the pastimes of the Bhagavān feature of the Absolute Truth (līlā). Then I  am what I have always been – an unending individual performing loving services (seva) in whatever form (plant, animal, human) that is desired by Bhagavān. The result is permanent ecstasy (sthäyi-bhäva).

5)完全恢复的阶段:“我”是“ātmā”(ānanda-maya)。在此阶段关于“我”是观察者(或被观察者)的觉悟被完全唤醒了(Jīvan-mukta)。现在一个人能要么通过Jnāna-yoga的修习来对发生在他的身体和心意里的一切不感兴趣从而进入绝对真理的无形的布茹阿曼特征,要么通过Bhakti-yoga的修习来得到灵性的力量(cit)从而使身体和心意被转变成灵性能量。如此一个人就能参与绝对真理的Bhagavān特征的逍遥活动(līlā)。然后我就是我一直都是的那个——以Bhagavān想要的任何形象(植物,动物,人)从事爱心服务(seva)的无穷尽的个体。其结果是永久的狂喜(sthäyi-bhäva)

 

Since all identifications on the mundane plane are an illusion, it is meaningless to make judgments about an “egoistic”, selfish ego in opposition to a more altruistic ego. It is, after all, only a matter of different degrees within the same illusion. From the point of view of the highest reality it is inconsequential. Whether this ego is selfish or altruistic – false ego always entails nescience.

由于在世俗层面上的一切认同都是幻觉,做出关于与更无私的自我相反的“自我中心”的,自私的自我的判断是没有意义的。毕竟那只是在同样的幻觉里的不同程度的问题。从最高的现实的观点来看,这样做是无关紧要的。无论此自我是自私的还是无私的——假我总是使人无知。

 



[1] “The material creation is something like a cloud in the unlimited sky” (SB 2.5.21).

 

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